High quality papersMore than 1000 satisfied customers chose and are still using our essay writing help services and we never let them down. The section also describes what is currently known about the topic, which makes the present tense the most natural tense to use. Plagiarism FreeEach custom written assignment is unique and has no plagiarism at all. To cite a previous study or finding without mentioning the researcher in the sentence: . To introduce other people’s research into your text when you are describing a specific study, usually carried out by named researcher.
If the time of demonstration is unknown or not important, use the present perfect. To “frame” your paper: in your introduction, the present simple tense describes what we already know about the topic; in the conclusion, it says what we now know about the topic and what further research is still needed. In the introductory section, the present tense is more common because in that section you state your reasons for undertaking the piece of research described in the paper. Conclusions and Further work: use present perfect to make clear that your statements still hold at the time of reading; for further work the future tense (or the present) is acceptable. Here is a brief guide to using the four variants, namely simple past, simple present, present perfect, and past perfect. Since the materials and methods section is an account of your actions and not your intentions, the future tense is out of place.
These three verb tenses account for approximately 80% of the verb tense use in academic writing. Sometimes, you may need to use the past perfect tense, as in “the seeds had been exposed to ultraviolet radiation for 4 hours before sowing, ” to describe some earlier stages of the experimental procedure. Simple past: Use simple past to describe specific actions or events that occurred in the past and that are not being linked to the present in the same sentence. They have laid down the following guidelines relating the outline of a typical paper. The situation is quite the contrary: we strive to deliver custom written papers prior to initial deadline!
A typical research paper follows the IMRaD format, and how frequently a given tense is used varies with the section of the paper: the introduction, for example, uses a mix of the present tense and the past tense whereas the past tense dominates the results section. Introduction: use a mixture of present and past tense; the present tense is applied when you are talking about something that is always true; the past tense is used for earlier research efforts, either by your own or by another group. On the other hand, it is common in the discussion section, toward the end, to indicate the future course of action suggested by the results of current research – and the future tense is the most natural choice then. To make general statements, conclusions, or interpretations about previous research or data, focusing on what is known now (The data suggest … The research shows …). We are not done with your paper until You are completely satisfied with your paper. Moore/Tsuda do not talk about a section that I often use as a last paragraph before acknowledgements: . Use simple present also to indicate research results that you believe to be true and relevant to your present research, as in ‘Robinson maintains that soaking seeds in strong acids help in breaking seed dormancy.
Abstract: generally, use the simple past (or for a concise introductory phrase the present perfect); for general statements and facts use the present tense. For the concluding statements of your introduction use the simple past; you may use the past perfect, when you talk about something that was true in the past but is no longer so. This handout will help you understand how present simple, past simple, and present perfect verb tenses are used in academic writing. Past perfect: Use past perfect to describe two related past events that occurred at different times in the past, as in ‘By the time they were sown, the seeds had already germinated’ and ‘Those candidates that had been exposed to radiation earlier were excluded. Buy essay online for the best price of the top-notch quality24/7 SupportNot only we provide our customers with the most professional writing services of unmatched quality, but when ordering essay writer help from SpeedyPaper You are treated like a friend. Every essay is checked for any instances of similarity at all stages of your order to make sure you receive the final product exactly as you specified it initially.
Present perfect: Use present perfect to talk about a past event that is linked to the present, to talk about trends, or about events that have ended or occurred recently or still continuing, as in ‘The use of cell phones or mobile phones to access the Internet has increased recently’ and ‘Multi-megawatt turbines have been used in Europe for offshore sites. Although English uses an elaborate system of tenses, simple past and simple present are the most common tenses in research papers, supplemented by present perfect and past perfect. Free RevisionsOnly You decide whether your custom written essay 100% meets your requirements and expectations. Here, the past is more natural because you are describing work that is already complete at the time of writing. Use this as your first choice unless you have a good reason to use another tense. Here, we will expand on this a bit and discuss tense usage in specific sections.